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MICHIGAN FORESTS FOREVER TEACHERS GUIDE

 


MICHIGAN TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES   
98 SPECIES
1-TreeSign.jpg (15307 bytes)

These are species you're likely to find in the forests of the Upper Peninsula, not necessarily including all the species grown for ornamentals, street trees, or arboreta.   Most were identified by the U.S. Forest Statewide Inventory, 1993.  The red-lettered species, or at least some species within a genus, are exotics (non-natives).

CONIFERS OR SOFTWOODS - 22


Cedar, N. White
(Thuja occidentalis)
Douglas-fir
(Pseudotsuga menziezii)
Fir, Balsam
(Abies balsamea)
Fir, Fraser (Abies fraseri)
Fir, White (Abies concolor)
Hemlock, Eastern (Tsuga canadensis)
Juniper (Juniperus spp.)
Larch, European (Larix decidua)
Pine, Black (Pinus nigra)
Pine, Jack (Pinus banksiana)
Pine, Ponderosa
(Pinus ponderosa)
Pine, Red or Norway (Pinus resinosa)
Pine, Scotch
(Pinus sylvestris)
Pine, White (Pinus strobus)
Red-cedar, Eastern
(Juniperus virginiana)
Spruce, Black (Picea mariana)
Spruce, Colorado Blue (Picea pungens)
Spruce, Engelmann
(Picea engelmannii)
Spruce, Norway (Picea abies)
Spruce, White (Picea glauca)
Tamarack (Larix laricina)
Yew, Canada
(Taxus canadensis)

DECIDUOUS OR HARDWOODS - 76

Ailanthus, Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
Alder, Tag
(Alnus rugosa)
Apple (Malus spp.)
Ash, Black
(Fraxinus nigra)
Ash, Green
(Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
Ash, Mountain (Sorbus americana)
Ash, White
(Fraxinus americana)
Aspen, Quaking
(Populus tremuloides)
Aspen, Bigtooth
(Populus grandidentata)
Balm-of-Gilead
(Populus balsamifera)
   also known as balm, bam, & balsam poplar
Basswood (Tilia americana)
Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia)
Birch, Yellow (Betula alleghaniensis)
Birch, Paper
(Betula papyrifera)
Birch, River
(Betula nigra)
Birch, Sweet (Betula lenta)
Boxelder
(Acer negundo)
Buckeye, Ohio (Aesculus glabra)
Buckthorn
(Rhamnus spp.)
Butternut
(Juglans cinerea)
Catalpa, Northern (Catalpa speciosa)
Cherry, Black
(Prunus serotina)
Cherry, Choke (Prunus virginiana)
Cherry, Pin or Fire
(Prunus pensylvanica)
Cottonwood, Eastern (Populus deltoides)

Dogwood (Cornus spp.)
Dogwood, Flowering
(Cornus florida)
Elderberry
(Sambucus spp.)
Elm, American (Ulmus americana)
Elm, Slippery
(Ulmus rubra)
Elm, Siberian
(Ulmus pumila)
Elm, Rock
(Ulmus thomasii)
Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)
Hawthorne
(Crataegus spp.)
Hazel (Corylus americana, C. cornuta)
Hickory, Bitternut
(Carya cordiformis)
Hickory, Shagbark (Carya ovata)
Hickory, Shellbark
(Carya laciniosa)
Hickory, Mockernut
(Carya tomentosa)
Hickory, Pignut
(Carya, glabra)
Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos)
Horse-chestnut
(Aesculus hippocastanum)
Ironwood (Ostrya virginiana)
   also known as American hornbeam
Juneberry/Serviceberry
(Amelanchier spp.)
Locust, Black
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Maple, Black
(Acer nigra)
Maple, Mountain
(Acer spicatum)
Maple, Norway (Acer platanoides)
Maple, Red
(Acer rubrum)
Maple, Silver
(Acer saccharinum)
Maple, Striped or Moosewood (Acer pensylvanicum)
Maple, Sugar
(Acer saccharum)
Mulberry, Red
(Morus rubra)
Musclewood
(Carpinus caroliniana)
also known as hop-hornbeam &  blue beech
Oak, Bur (Quercus macrocarpa)
Oak, Chestnut
(Quercus prinus)
Oak, Chinakapin
(Quercus muelenbergii)
Oak, Northern Pin
(Quercus ellipsoidales)
   also known as Hill’s oak, scrub oak, & jack oak
Oak, Northern Red (Quercus rubra)
Oak, Pin
(Quercus palustris)
Oak, Scarlet
(Quercus coccinea)
Oak, Swamp White
(Quercus bicolor)
Oak, White
(Quercus alba)
Poplar, Yellow (Liriodendron tulipifera)
Pear
(Pyrus spp.)
Plum (Prunus spp.)
Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
Sycamore
(Platanus occidentalis)
Tupelo, Water
(Nyssa aquatica)
Walnut, Black
(Juglans nigra)
Willow, Bebb's (Salix bebbiana)
Willow, Black (Salix nigra)
Willow, Peachleaf
(Salix amygdaloides)
Willow, Pussy (Salix discolor)
Willow Shrubs
(Salix spp.)
Willow, Weeping (Salix babylonica)

Tree ID Pages:  ID Characteristics, ID Keys, ID Websites, ID Glossary


TAXONOMY OF THE TREES AND SHRUBS OF THE USA

For upper level biology classes interested in the bigger taxonomic picture, this list includes most families which contain tree & shrub species within the USA.   Families with representatives in the northeastern USA have common names in (parentheses), but this is not necessarily complete.  Some of the families are obscure, monotypic, and/or alien.  Some have been commercially introduced from outside the United States.  One or two families may have been reclassified or renamed.

All classifications belong to the Division Spermotophyta (seed-bearing, true flowers).  The names used for particular botanical classification units vary from source to source.  Represented are 2 Classes, 2 Subclasses, 4 Super Orders, 36 Orders, and 113 Families.

Class 1. GYMNOSPERMAE
     Order 1. Ginkgoales

           Family 1. Ginkgoaceae (gingko)
     Order 2. Coniferales
           Family 2.  Cupressaceae (cedar, cypress)
           Family 2. Taxaceae (yews)
           Family 3. Araucariaceae (araucaria)
           Family 4. Pinaceae (pines, larches, spruce, fir, Douglas-fir, hemlock)
     Order 3. Gnetales
       Family 5. Ephedraceae

Class 2. ANGIOSPERMAE (flowering plants)
Subclass 1. DICOTYLENDONAE (seeds with two "leaves")
   Super Order 1. AMENTIFERAE (catkins)
     Order 1. Salicales
      Family 6. Salicaceae (willows, aspen)
     Order 2. Garryales ?
       Family 7. Garryaceae ?
     Order 3. Myricales
       Family 8. Myricaceae (waxmyrtle)
     Order 4. Leitneriales
           Family 9. Leitneriaceae (corkwood)
     Order 5. Juglandales
           Family 10. Juglandaceae (butternut, walnut, hickory)
     Order 6. Fagales
           Family 11. Betulaceae (birches, alder, ironwood, musclewood)
           Family 12. Fagaceae (oak, beech)
   Super Order 2. APETALAE  (flowers without petals)
     Order 1. Urticales
           Family 13. Ulmaceae (elms, hackberry)
           Family 14. Moraceae (mulberry)
           Family 15. Urticaceae (nettles)
     Order 2. Santalales
           Family 16. Santalaceae (sandal-wood)
           Family 17. Loranthaceae (mistletoe)
     Order 3. Aristolochiales
           Family 18. Aristolochiaceae (birthwort)
     Order 4. Polygonales
           Family 19. Polygonaceae (smartweed)
     Order 5. Centrospermae
           Family 20. Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot)
           Family 21. Caryophyllaceae (pinks)
   Super Order 3. POLYFLORAE  (flowers with separate petals)
     Order 1. Ranales
           Family 22. Ranunculaceae (crowfoot)
           Family 23. Lardizabalaceae
           Family 24. Sargentodoxaceae
           Family 25. Berberidaceae (barberry)
           Family 26. Menispermaceae (moonseed)
           Family 27. Trochodendraceae
           Family 28. Cercidiphyllaceae
           Family 29. Magnoliacae (magnolia, tulip tree)
           Family 30. Calycanthaceae
           Family 31. Annonaceae
           Family 32. Lauraceae (sassafrass, laurel)
     Order 2. Rhoeadales
           Family 33. Cruciferae (mustards)
     Order 3. Rosiflorae
           Family 34. Crassulaceae (orpine)
           Family 35. Saxifragaceae (saxifrage)
           Family 36. Hamamelidaceae (witch hazel)
           Family 37. Eucommiaceae
           Family 38. Platanaceae (sycamore)
           Family 39. Rosaceae (cherries, apples, hawthorne, juneberry, mountain ash, etc.)
           Family 40. Fabaceae (locusts, peas, legumes)
     Order 4. Geraniales
           Family 41. Zygophyllaceae (caltrops)
           Family 42. Rutaceae (rue)
           Family 43. Simarubaceae (tree-of-heaven, Quassia)
           Family 44. Meliaceae (mahogany)
           Family 45. Polygalaceae (milkwort)
           Family 46. Euphorbiaceae (spurge)
     Order 5. Sapindales
           Family 47. Buxaceae
           Family 48. Empetraceae (crowberry)
           Family 49. Coriariaceae ??
           Family 50. Anacardiaceae (sumac)
           Family 51. Cyrillaceae
           Family 52. Aquifoliaceae (holly)
           Family 53. Celastraceae (bittersweet)
           Family 54. Staphyleaceae (bladder-nut)
           Family 55. Aceraceae (maples)
           Family 56. Hippocastanaceae (horse-chestnut)
           Family 57. Sapindaceae (soapberry)
           Family 58. Sabiaceae
     Order 6. Rhamnales
           Family 59. Rhamnaceae (buckthorn)
           Family 60. Vitaceae (grape)
     Order 7. Mavales
           Family 61. Tiliaceae (basswood)
           Family 62. Malvaceae (mallow)
           Family 63. Sterculiaceae
     Order 8. Parietales
           Family 64. Actinidiaceae
           Family 65. Eucryphiaceae
           Family 66. Theaceae (tea)
           Family 67. Hypericaceae (St. Johnswort)
           Family 68. Tamaricaceae (tamarisk)
           Family 69. Cistaceae (rockrose)
           Family 70. Violaceae (violet)
           Family 71. Flacourtiaceae
           Family 72. Stachyuraceae
     Order 9. Opuntiales
           Family 73. Cactaceae (cacti)
     Order 10. Myrtiflorae
           Family 74. Thymelaeaceae (leatherwood)
           Family 75. Elaeagnaceae (Russian olive)
           Family 76. Lythraceae (loosestrife)
           Family 77. Punicaceae (pomegranate)
           Family 78. Nyssaceae (tupelo)
           Family 79. Alangiaceae
           Family 80. Myrtaceae (myrtle)
           Family 81. Onagraceae (evening primrose)
     Order 11. Umbelliflorae
           Family 82. Araliacae (ginseng)
           Family 83. Umbelliferae (parsley)
           Family 84. Cornaceae (dogwood)
   Super Order 4. SYMPETALAE  (flowers with joined petals)
     Order 1. Ericales
           Family 85. Clethraceae (white alder)
           Family 86. Pyrolaceae (wintergreen)
           Family 87. Ericaceae (blueberry)
           Family 88. Diapensiaceae
     Order 2. Primulales
           Family 89. Myrsinaceae ?
     Order 3. Plumbaginales
           Family 90. Plumbaginaceae ?
     Order 4. Ebenales
           Family 91. Sapotaceae
           Family 92. Ebenaceae (persimmon)
           Family 93. Symplocaceae (sweet-leaf)
           Family 94. Styracaceae (snowbell)
     Order 5. Contortae
           Family 95. Oleaceae (ash, lilac)
           Family 96. Loganiaceae
           Family 97. Apocynaceae (dogbane)
           Family 98. Ascelpiadaceae (milkweed)
     Order 6. Tubiflorae
           Family 99. Polemoniaceae (phlox)
           Family 100. Boraginaceae (borage)
           Family 101. Verbenaceae (vervain)
           Family 102. Labiatae (mint)
           Family 103. Solanaceae (nightshade)
           Family 104. Scrophulariaceae (figwort)
           Family 105. Bignoniaceae (catalpa)
           Family 106. Globulariaceaa ?
     Order 7. Plantaginales
           Family 107. Plantaginaceae (plantain)
     Order 8. Rubiales
           Family 108. Rubiaceae (madder)
           Family 109. Caprifoliaceae (elderberry, honeysuckle)
           Family 110. Dipsacaceae (teasel)
     Order 9. Campanulatae
           Family 111. Compositae (composites)

Subclass 2. MONOCOTYLEDONAE  (seeds with one "leave")
     Order 1. Glumflorae
            Family 112. Gramineae (grasses)
     Order 2. Liliiflorae
            Family 113. Liliaceae
(lilies)

Source: Rehder, 1940. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs.
Cross-checked with Gleason & Cronquist (1963) and Harlow & Harrar (1968).

Tree ID Pages:  ID Characteristics,   ID Keys,   ID Websites,   ID Glossary

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Please provide comments to Bill Cook:  cookwi@msu.edu or 786-1575